GlobalAutoRegs Reference Library
The GAR Library contains reference documents useful in understanding regulatory affairs, including legislative acts, reports, and analyses. We add documents as we find them and would welcome any suggestions for documents to add.
Title Publication date
Habits, attitudes, and expectations of regular users of partial driving automation systems
11 Mar 2024 Little is known about regular users’ perceptions of partial (Level 2) automation or how those perceptions affect behind-the-wheel behavior. Method: A mixed mode (phone and online) survey explored the habits, expectations, and attitudes among regular users of General Motors Super Cruise (n = 200), Nissan/Infiniti ProPILOT Assist (n = 202), and Tesla Autopilot (n = 202). Results: All three groups reported being more likely to engage in non-driving-related activities while using their systems than while driving unassisted. Super Cruise and Autopilot users especially were more likely to report engaging in activities that involved taking their hands off the wheel or their eyes off the road. Many Super Cruise and Autopilot users also said they could perform secondary (non-driving-related) tasks better and more often while using their systems, while fewer ProPILOT Assist users shared this opinion. Super Cruise users were most likely and ProPILOT Assist users least likely to think that secondary activities were safer to perform while using their systems. While some drivers said they found user safeguards (e.g., attention reminders, lockouts) annoying and tried to circumvent them, most people said they found them helpful and felt safer with them. Large percentages of users (53% Super Cruise, 42% Autopilot and 12% ProPILOT Assist) indicated they were comfortable treating their systems as self-driving. Conclusions: Some regular users have a poor understanding of their technology’s limits. System design appears to contribute to user perceptions and behavior. However, owner populations also differ, which means habits, attitudes, and expectations may not generalize. Most people value user safeguards, but some implementations may not be effective for everyone. Practical Applications: Multifaceted, proactive user-centric safeguards are needed to shape proper behavior and understanding about drivers’ roles and responsibilities while using partial driving automation.
Interpretation of EU Regulation 2022/1426 on the Type Approval of Automated Driving Systems
22 Feb 2024 In 2022, the European Commission adopted the first worldwide legislation concerning the type-approval of the Automated Driving Systems of fully Automated Vehicles, opening the road to their introduction to the European market. The EU, in this way, becomes the first market in the world where this new generation of vehicles can be placed with a complete and unambiguous legislative framework. In order to define the conditions for the type-approval of vehicles operating without the presence of a driver, the EU Regulation 2022/1426 introduces a series of completely innovative elements that both industry and the Approval Authorities of the European Member States have the task to operationalise. In order to support this phase and to ensure the establishment of as harmonized as possible practices across the EU, the European Commission has launched in 2022 the process of drafting a first interpretation of some among the most innovative aspects of the Regulation. The present report is the result of this process. It has been drafted with the active contribution by the experts who compose the Automated and Connected Vehicles sub-group of the Working Group on Motor Vehicles (MVWG-ACV). In its final form the report is composed by two parts. A first part of technical interpretation of the regulatory text and a second part composed by six appendixes providing examples and relevant resources to support the operationalization of different aspects of the legislation.
Comparative Safety Performance of Autonomous- and Human Drivers: A Real-World Case Study of the Waymo One Service
3 Sep 2023 This study compares the safety of autonomous- and human drivers. It finds that the Waymo One autonomous service is significantly safer towards other road users than human drivers are, as measured via collision causation. The result is determined by comparing Waymo’s third party liability insurance claims data with mileage- and zip-code-calibrated Swiss Re (human driver) private passenger vehicle baselines.
ACEA Automotive Regulatory Guide
25 May 2023 The European automotive industry is one of the most heavily regulated, being implicated in more than 150 EU regulations and 30 directives. In this context, the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA) has produced the third edition of the Automotive Regulatory Guide. This publication provides a comprehensive overview of national and international regulations impacting the sector – including their applicability to spare parts – covering topics from safety to the environment, technical requirements, telecommunications, and much more.
Connected and automated mobility: Vocabulary (Version 5)
12 Apr 2023 This document defines terms, abbreviations, and acronyms for the connected and automated mobility (CAM) sector, focused on those relating to vehicles and associated technologies. It covers terms relating to connectivity and automation of road-going, land-based vehicles and their users. It does not cover terms that are manufacturer-specific. This document is intended for use by insurers, regulators, legislators and organizations involved in CAM infrastructure, as well as CAM manufacturers, operators and consumers.
NHTSA Second Amended Standing General Order 2021-01
6 Apr 2023 Standing General Order (SGO) under which NHTSA is requiring vehicle and equipment manufacturers and operators of ADS and Level 2 ADAS vehicles to report crashes to the agency.
Automated Vehicles: joint report of the Law Commission of England and Wales and the Scottish Law Commission
3 Feb 2021 The Law Commission of England and Wales and the Scottish Law Commission were asked by the Centre for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CCAV)1 to review the law relating to automated vehicles (AVs). This report presents their recommendations for a new regulatory framework to govern the introduction and continuing safety of AVs on roads or other public places in Great Britain (GB).
Safety Risks to Emergency Responders from Lithium-Ion Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles
8 Jan 2021 As part of an investigation into the safety risks emergency responders face when dealing with the high-voltage lithium-ion batteries that power electric vehicles, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) studied three electric vehicle crashes resulting in fires (in Lake Forest and Mountain View, California, and Fort Lauderdale, Florida) and one noncrash fire involving an electric vehicle (in West Hollywood, California). The NTSB identified two main safety issues: (1) inadequacy of vehicle manufacturers’ emergency response guides for minimizing the risks to first and second responders (firefighters and tow operators) posed by high-voltage lithium-ion battery fires in electric vehicles, and (2) gaps in safety standards and research related to high-voltage lithium-ion batteries involved in high-speed, high-severity crashes.
Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP) Use Cases for Cooperative Driving Automation
3 Sep 2020 Activity report of Japan's task force on V2x communication for cooperative driving automation in FY2019.
What humanlike errors do autonomous vehicles need to avoid to maximize safety?
1 Jun 2020 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety study on the potential for crash reductions through the deployment of comprehensive automated driving systems.
AVSC Best Practice for Describing an Operational Design Domain: Conceptual Framework and Lexicon
15 Apr 2020 This document provides a conceptual framework and the parameters of interest, along with operational definitions, that manufacturers and developers can use to describe an Automated Driving System (ADS) Operational Design Domain (ODD). The document seeks to establish commonly defined terms and a framework in which to apply them. Where applicable, labels, definitions, and measurement ranges are provided to promote consistent communication and help ensure that users’ ADS expectations are aligned with capabilities.
US Pedestrian Fatalities by State: 2019 Preliminary Data
27 Feb 2020 This study, based on preliminary data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia (D.C.), found that the alarming rise in pedestrian deaths observed in both 2015 and 2016 resumed in 2018 and continued in 2019.
Global Climate and Health Impacts of Diesel and Gasoline Emissions
24 Feb 2020 Research quantifying the global radiative forcing and human health impacts of the global gasoline and diesel sectors using the NCAR CESM global chemistry-climate model for the year 2015 emissions from the IIASA GAINS inventory.
Stockholm Declaration on Road Safety
20 Feb 2020 Building on the Moscow Declaration of 2009 and the Brasilia Declaration of 2015, UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly resolutions, the Stockholm Declaration connects road safety to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Stockholm Declaration reflects the recommendations of the conference’s Academic Expert Group and its independent and scientific assessments of progress made during the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020 and its proposals for a way forward.
Net emission reductions from electric cars and heat pumps in 59 world regions over time
30 Jan 2020 Analysis of current and future emissions trade-offs showing the electric cars are less emissions-intensive in 53 world regions.
Interacting with Android Auto and Apple CarPlay when driving: The effect on driver performance-A simulator study
29 Jan 2020 IAM RoadSmart in partnership with the FIA Foundation and Rees Jeffreys Road Fund commissioned TRL to explore the impact of Android Auto and Apple CarPlay on driver performance using TRL’s High Fidelity 300° DigiCar simulator. TRL also sought to compare the results to other forms of driver impairment from previous studies that used the same simulator ‘impairment’ route.
Ensuring American Leadership in Automated Vehicle Technologies: Automated Vehicles 4.0
8 Jan 2020 The U.S. Department of Transportation developed AV 4.0 to unify efforts in automated vehicles across 38 Federal departments, independent agencies, commissions, and Executive Offices of The President, providing high-level guidance to Federal agencies, innovators, and all stakeholders on the U.S. Government’s posture towards automated vehicles.
Pedestrian Trust in Automated Vehicles: Role of Traffic Signal and AV Driving Behavior
28 Nov 2019 Human-subject study with 30 participants in a virtual reality environment indicating that pedestrian trust in automated vehicles depended upon the presence of a traffic signal light. The study presents implications for design and future research.
AVSC Best Practice for In-Vehicle Fallback Test Driver Selection, Training, and Oversight Procedures for Automated Vehicles Under Test
8 Nov 2019 AVSC Best Practice for in-vehicle fallback test driver (safety operator) selection, training, and oversight procedures for automated vehicles under test provides a detailed view of the safety considerations for training automated vehicle (AV) test personnel. It outlines recommended criteria and processes for selecting and training test personnel providing oversight during AV testing and in-cabin procedures. It also provides pre-work shift and post-work shift recommendations. It supports and operationalizes the general principle that “In-vehicle fallback test drivers (IFTDs) will be thoroughly trained on the automated driving system, the operational design domain, and controlling the vehicle.”
UK Code of Practice: Automated vehicle trialling
4 Feb 2019 This Code is primarily intended to be used by organisations or individuals planning to trial or pilot automated vehicle technologies and services in the UK. The Code aims to:<ul><li>Support and promote the safe trialling and use of automated vehicle technologies and services on public roads or in other public places in the UK and build public confidence in automated vehicle technologies and services;</li><li>Support cooperation between trialling organisations and those responsible for the management of traffic, infrastructure, law enforcement, and other areas to support maximum road safety; and</li><li>Encourage sharing of information to help uphold and develop the highest standards of safety in the UK and internationally.</li></ul>
Preparing for the Future of Transportation: Automated Vehicles 3.0
4 Oct 2018 US Department of Transportation guiding principles and strategy to address existing barriers to safety innovation and progress with regard to vehicle automation across modes of transport.
A Framework for Automated Driving System Testable Cases and Scenarios
26 Sep 2018 The goal of this research was to develop an example of a preliminary test framework for Automated Driving Systems that are in development and may come to market in the near to mid future.
Road safety management capacity review
26 Jun 2018 Review of road safety delivery practices throughout Great Britain.
Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles
15 Jun 2018 SAE Standard J3016 revised as of 15 June 2018. This document is available free of charge, but is subject to copyright restrictions which prevent our providing a direct download. To download this document, please visit the <a href="" target="_blank">SAE J3016 order page</a>.
Safer Roads with Automated Vehicles?
23 May 2018 This OECD International Transport Forum report examines how increasing automation of cars and trucks could affect road safety and which security vulnerabilities will need to be addressed with the rise of self-driving vehicles. The report applies the principles of the “Safe System”, which is at the forefront of current thinking about road safety, to the wider discussion on vehicle automation. It also takes into considerations the security of the cyber-physical system associated with automated driving. This includes a definition of relevant system boundaries and future-proof minimum requirements for relevant safety and security indicators. A review of the key issues and discussions in the context of (road) safety and (cyber) security of (highly) automated vehicles framed the discussion at a workshop held in November 2017, which, combined with research and expert input, provides the basis for this report.
Prevalence of Drowsy-Driving Crashes: Estimates from a Large-Scale Naturalistic Driving Study
23 Feb 2018 This Research Brief describes a study that examined the prevalence of driver drowsiness immediately prior to crashes that occurred in the context of a large-scale naturalistic driving study in which the driving of more than 3,500 people was monitored continuously for a period of several months using in-vehicle cameras and other data collection equipment. Drowsiness was assessed using a validated measure that is based on the percentage of time that a person’s eyes are closed. Using this measure, drowsiness was identified in 8.8% - 9.5% of all crashes examined and 10.6% - 10.8% of crashes that resulted in significant property damage, airbag deployment, or injury.
2017 International Transport Forum Road Safety Annual Report
10 Oct 2017 The IRTAD Road Safety Annual Report 2017 provides an overview of road safety performance for 2015 in 40 countries, with preliminary data for 2016, and detailed reports for each country. It includes tables with cross country comparisons on key safety indicators.
Assessment of risks for elevated NOx emissions of diesel vehicles outside the boundaries of RDE
3 Jul 2017 TNO report identifying driving and vehicle conditions outside the scope of RDE testing and offering possible abatement measures capture these conditions.
In depth cost-effectiveness analysis of the identified measures and features regarding the way forward for EU vehicle safety
1 Jun 2017 “In depth cost-effectiveness analysis of the identified measures and features regarding the way forward for EU vehicle safety”: In 2015, the European Commission published the report conducted by TRL: “Benefit and Feasibility of a Range of new Technologies and Unregulated Measures in the Fields of Occupant Safety and Protection of Vulnerable Road Users”. The report considered more than 50 safety measures that could be implemented as part of the amendment to the General Safety Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 661/2009) and the Pedestrian Safety Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 78/2009). This TRL study reviews in more detail the 24 candidate measures selected by the Commission for potential inclusion in the regulations.
Consumer Interest in Automation: Preliminary Observations Exploring a Year’s Change
24 May 2017 In 2016, the MIT AgeLab and New England Motor Press Association (NEMPA) conducted a survey exploring consumers’ perceptions and willingness to accept varying levels of automation. The survey found while approximately one third of the younger adult sample (under 45 years) were somewhat open to full automation, older drivers were more likely to only endorse being comfortable with systems that assist the driver and that do not require them to give up control. Given the various advances and setbacks in automation then, the 2016 survey was re-deployed to gain deeper insight into the following questions:<ol><li>Are consumers satisfied with technology that is already in their vehicle?</li><li>How are consumers learning about in-vehicle technologies?</li><li>How would they prefer to learn?</li><li>Has the willingness to use automation changed over the past year?</li><li>Are older adults more or less willing to use autonomous vehicles?</li></ol>
European Parliament draft opinion on A European Strategy of Low-Emission Mobility
23 Mar 2017
EU Horizon 2020 interim report
6 Mar 2017 European Parliament Committee on Industry, Research and Energy draft report on the assessment of Horizon 2020 implementation in view of its interim evaluation and the Framework Programme 9 proposal. These programs establish the funding framework for EU research, including programs related to motor vehicle regulations and EU safety and environmental policy objectives.
Federal Automated Vehicles Policy
20 Sep 2016 Initial policy of the US Department of Transportation towards regulating the safety of highly automated vehicles.
Assessment of Intended and Unintended Consequences of Vehicle Adaptations to meet Advanced Frontal Crash Test Provisions
3 Jun 2016 Investigation into the potential impact of UN R137 on full width rigid barrier crash testing on vehicle design.
Benefit and Feasibility of a Range of New Technologies and Unregulated Measures in the fields of Vehicle Occupant Safety and Protection of Vulnerable Road Users
25 Mar 2015 European Commission-sponsored report providing an overview of the feasibility and cost-benefit relationship across a wide range of measures for consideration in the development of the EU General Safety Regulation.
The pathway to driverless cars: a detailed review of regulations for automated vehicle technologies
11 Feb 2015 This document lays out the UK Government’s plans to facilitate the testing and production of vehicles.
Provision of information and services to perform an initial assessment of additional functional safety and vehicle construction requirements for L7e-A heavy on-road quads
28 Apr 2014 The EU Framework Regulation for L-category vehicles (168/2013) introduced a new subcategory of vehicle, ‘L7e-A’ with a power limit of 15 kW but not limited to speeds under 90 km/h. This TRL study for the European Commission provides an assessment of possible safety concerns and regulatory responses specific to these light electric vehicles (heavy on-road quadricycles).
Development of a Head Impact Test Procedure for Pedestrian Protection
4 Nov 1991 EUROPEAN EXPERIMENTAL VEHICLES COMMITTEE: WORKING GROUP 10 ON PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION (1991). Development of a Head Impact Test Procedure for Pedestrian Protection. Proceedings of the Thirteenth ESV Conference, Paris, November 1991. (K. P. Glaeser)
National Vehicle Traffic and Safety Act of 1966 (USA)
9 Sep 1966 US legislative act establishing the vehicle safety regulatory system, including federal motor vehicle safety standards, safety defect remedy system, and the forerunner of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Magic Motorways
20 Mar 1940 Five million people saw the Futurama of the General Motors Highways and Horizons Exhibit at the New York World’s Fair during the summer of 1939. In long queues that often stretched more than a mile, from 5,000 to 15,000 men, women and children at a time, stood, all day long every day, under the hot sun and in the rain, waiting more than an hour for their turn to get a sixteen-minute glimpse at the motorways of the world of tomorrow. This book will take you backstage. It will answer the many questions which the Futurama left unanswered. The Futurama and this book are two different treatments of the same material. The book is a description of the exhibit, just as the exhibit is an illustration of this text. And the book will do two things which the Futurama could not do. First it will describe the premises, based on American experience, on which such a future transportation system is built; and second, it will suggest the consequences, technical and economic and social, which will result from such a future transportation system.