Session 69 | Geneva | 5-6 Jun 2014
Agenda Item 7. Particle Measurement Programme (PMP)
This agenda item relates to PMP and NEPE.
Working Party on Pollution and Energy | Session 65 | 15-18 Jan 2013

72. The expert from Sweden introduced GRPE-65-06, containing information on the introduction of the possibility for national type approval of retrofit emission control system for heavy duty vehicles. The use of these type approved retrofit systems is limited to vehicles designed and approved up to the euro III emission standard (namely city buses) and enables the reduction of pollutant emissions (95 per cent for particles, and 70 per cent for NOX). The effective control the retrofit system shall include indication to the driver if the reduction ratio for NOX is below 50 per cent and if the reagent level in the tank falls below 10 per cent. Replying to a question from the expert from Switzerland, he clarified that the possibility to use vehicles in environmental zones is the main incentive to retrofit them.

73. The expert from Japan introduced GRPE-65-14, containing a summary of the future Japanese policy on motor vehicle emission reduction. He provided details on future emission reduction measures for motorcycles, heavy duty diesel motor vehicles and special motor vehicles (such as non-road mobile machinery) powered by diesel fuel. Speaking about emission reduction from heavy duty diesel vehicles, he specified that the focus will be on the improvement of durability and reliability of NOX after treatment devices and on the use of off-cycle emission measurement. He also elaborated on tailpipe emission reduction measures, current technologies and challenges. Following requests from the expert from the United States and India, he clarified the approach adopted on the measurement of opacity and provided information on Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) on heavy duty vehicles.

74. The expert from the Russian Federation introduced GRPE-65-20, containing an analysis, based on studies carried out in the USA and the Russian Federation, on the role of tyre dust with respect to air pollution and health impacts. He invited GRPE participants to share information on the subject and called for the consideration of regulatory action on it.

75. GRPE welcomed the presentation by the experts from Japan, the Russian Federation and Sweden and noted the efforts undertaken in the fields addressed. Agreeing with the suggestion of the expert from Switzerland, GRPE recommended forwarding the document GRPE-65-20 to the Working Party on Braking and Running Gear (GRRF).

76. The secretariat introduced GRPE-65-05, a draft paper looking at diesel vehicles and engines in the context of air quality, impacts of the emission of pollutants on the environment and health. The secretariat explained that paper originated in the UNECE Environment Division and followed the conclusions of the International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) that diesel engine exhaust is carcinogenic to humans. The secretariat clarified that the document contains information on the importance of different economic sectors with respect to emissions, the interactions between sectoral emission sources and exposure to air pollution, policies and measures that have been implemented in different economic sectors to reduce the emissions of pollutants, including international agreements related to air quality, health and environmental issues. The secretariat reported that the current draft includes a compilation of facts from the work in the framework of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), its Task Force on Health, the European Environment Agency (EEA), and the work undertaken in the framework of the Inland Transport Committee and its subsidiary bodies, paying particular attention to the results delivered by the World Forum and GRPE.

77. The Director of the UNECE Transport Division explained that the paper would be the result of joint activity between the UNECE Transport and Environment Divisions. She explained that GRPE-65-05 shall be considered as a working document and encouraged all GRPE stakeholders to provide their contributions, namely on expected conclusions and recommendations. She explained her intention to widen the scope of the document to address all economic sectors, also clarifying that the inclusion of other sectors (besides transport) is still an open issue, at the moment. Having informed GRPE that the deadline for a final paper is the end of November 2013, she invited interested stakeholders to send their comments to the secretariat by the end of March 2013.

78. Positive comments on the document were expressed by the experts from Canada France, India, Italy, Germany, the Russian Federation and Switzerland. The expert from Canada acknowledged the inclusion of the contributions already provided in the draft text that was distributed. The expert from France gave a favourable feedback on the cross-sectoral approach suggested by the Director of the UNECE Transport Division. The expert from Germany recommended the incorporation of the achievements of the REC group, currently not mentioned in GRPE-65-05. The expert from Switzerland informed GRPE that diesel exhaust is classified as carcinogenic in Switzerland and that an action plan was started in 2006 to mitigate emissions. He mentioned that the experience of the action plan could provide interesting information for the paper. The expert from India suggested including a vision for future regulatory action in the document, of possible. Drawing attention on emissions of solid particles in cities, the expert from the Russian Federation recalled the role played by tyre dust and referred to GRPE-65-20 for more details.

79. The expert from OICA pointed out that the IARC conclusions were diffused in a press release, underlining that the full study is not yet available for the public. The expert from EUROMOT suggested including in the document non-road activities being undertaken in the European context.

80. Having agreed to limit the scope of the document to technical aspects of engines and vehicles, including regulatory interventions addressing their emissions (i.e. to its field of expertise), GRPE considered that the availability of the full study is not instrumental for its contributions. GRPE also agreed that the document should not question the conclusions of the experts from WHO and IARC.

World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations | Session 160 | 25-28 Jun 2013

18. The representative of the Russian Federation introduced a document (WP.29-160-39) containing data on release of particulates by transport vehicles that included not only engine emissions, but also tyre wear and brake pads wear. The Committee recommended referring this document to GRPE for consideration by its IWG on Particulate Matter Programme (PMP) and to GRB and GRRF for information and requested the secretariat to take the necessary actions.

World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations | Session 161 | 12-15 Nov 2013

117. The representative of the Republic of Korea presented WP.29-161-12 and WP.29-161-13 complementing his presentation on Vehicle Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) given at the previous session of WP.29 (ECE/TRANS/WP.29/1104, para. 130). He invited AC.3 to evaluate the possibility of establishing an IWG with the aim to develop a new UN GTR by 2017. He added that Korea would be committed to chairing such a group.

118. The representative of EU appreciated the presentations, but advised to complete first the development of current tasks before starting new activities. He indicated that this issue may already have been addressed by current legislation. The representative of Canada underlined the importance of addressing potential health impacts related with VIAQ. He supported the idea to work in this area taking into consideration the advice of the EU. He suggested focusing on the identification of best practices and the collection of information before undertaking regulatory work. The Chair of GRPE (Germany) supported the considerations of EU and Canada. He stressed the need to collect information and to analyse the subject before deciding upon the need to develop a UN GTR, if CPs see the need for such a step. Recalling the purpose of WP.29-160-38, the representative of the Russian Federation underlined the importance of the impact of pollutants emitted in the atmosphere on VIAQ. He introduced information through document WP.29-161-22, and expressed readiness to present additional information to the March 2014 session of WP.29. He evoked the need of regulatory initiatives aiming at establishing environmental requirements for vehicle design with respect to ventilation, heating, air conditioning and cabin filters. He recalled the work on tyre and brake wear, which he had introduced in WP.29 in earlier sessions, and underlined the importance of taking a holistic approach. The representative of the United States of America stressed the need to distinguish between emissions from materials used in vehicle construction, which were the responsibility of another agency of his country, and emissions due to vehicle propulsion systems.

119. AC.3 invited all participants to collect information on this topic and requested the secretariat to keep this item on the agenda of the March 2014 session for further discussion.

Working Party on Pollution and Energy | Session 68 | 7-10 Jan 2014

46. Having recalled the submission of GRPE-65-20, WP.29-160-39 and WP.29-161-22 on tyre and brake wear and vehicle indoor air quality, the expert from the Russian Federation introduced GRPE-68-10. He argued that the estimates about tyre and brake wear presented in it are significantly higher than the limits set by the Euro 6 pollutant emission regulations. He underlined that the importance of tyre and brake wear estimated in it is significantly higher than earlier estimates on the subject. He provided insights on the impact of the estimations of the contents of particulate matter within vehicles and in the outdoor air in urban driving conditions, and concluded that increased attention to the equipment of vehicles with instruments improving the indoor air quality needs to be taken into consideration.

Working Party on Pollution and Energy | Session 69 | 5-6 Jun 2014

26. Recalling the submission of GRPE-65-20, WP.29-160-39, WP.29-161-22 and GRPE-68-10 on tyre and brake wear and vehicle indoor air quality, the expert from the Russian Federation introduced GRPE-69-03 with further test and research results. He underlined the evidence that tyre wear would contribute to air pollution not only with solid particulates but also with gaseous pollutants. He announced that, to address this issue, the standard GOST R 51206-2015 on cabin air filters and purifiers was under development.

27. The Chair of the IWG on PMP provided an overview of the latest activities of the IWG (GRPE-69-25) focusing (i) first on the exhaust emissions, in particular on the 23 nm cut-off size confirmation given the state of technology as well as the development of a robust procedure to measure particles down to 10 nm in case of future needs, (ii) then on the particle emissions during regeneration and the particle emissions from Non-Road Mobile Machinery. He reported that the Group had addressed (GRPE-69-24) the concerns expressed in GRPE-69-03 and proposed a possible road map on how to proceed further with the issue of particles from tyre and brake wear (GRPE-69-23).

28. GRPE acknowledged the information provided by the IWG and the Russian Federation, endorsed in principle the roadmap proposed and requested the secretariat to reserve a room for a meeting prior to the January 2015 GRPE session.

43. The expert from the Russian Federation introduced GRPE-69-03 while discussing item 7 on Particulate Measurement Programme (see para. 26).

Documentation
GRPE-65-20 | Particulate Matter Emissions from Tires (Russia)
GRPE-68-10 | On dispersion of solid particles into the atmosphere of cities from tire and road surface wear (Russia)
GRPE-69-03 | Pollution of motor transport highways by particles from tire and road surface wear has a disastrous influence to human health (Russia)
GRPE-69-23 | Non-exhaust particle emissions from vehicles
GRPE-69-24 | PMP group’s comments on the informal document GRPE-69-03 submitted by the Russian Federation
GRPE-69-25 | PMP informal working group progress report and next steps
WP.29-160-39 | Real release of particulates by transport vehicles (Russia)
WP.29-161-22 | On the environmental safety of automobile vehicles (Russia)