72. The expert from Sweden introduced GRPE-65-06, containing information on the introduction of the possibility for national type approval of retrofit emission control system for heavy duty vehicles. The use of these type approved retrofit systems is limited to vehicles designed and approved up to the euro III emission standard (namely city buses) and enables the reduction of pollutant emissions (95 per cent for particles, and 70 per cent for NOX). The effective control the retrofit system shall include indication to the driver if the reduction ratio for NOX is below 50 per cent and if the reagent level in the tank falls below 10 per cent. Replying to a question from the expert from Switzerland, he clarified that the possibility to use vehicles in environmental zones is the main incentive to retrofit them.
73. The expert from Japan introduced GRPE-65-14, containing a summary of the future Japanese policy on motor vehicle emission reduction. He provided details on future emission reduction measures for motorcycles, heavy duty diesel motor vehicles and special motor vehicles (such as non-road mobile machinery) powered by diesel fuel. Speaking about emission reduction from heavy duty diesel vehicles, he specified that the focus will be on the improvement of durability and reliability of NOX after treatment devices and on the use of off-cycle emission measurement. He also elaborated on tailpipe emission reduction measures, current technologies and challenges. Following requests from the expert from the United States and India, he clarified the approach adopted on the measurement of opacity and provided information on Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) on heavy duty vehicles.
74. The expert from the Russian Federation introduced GRPE-65-20, containing an analysis, based on studies carried out in the USA and the Russian Federation, on the role of tyre dust with respect to air pollution and health impacts. He invited GRPE participants to share information on the subject and called for the consideration of regulatory action on it.
75. GRPE welcomed the presentation by the experts from Japan, the Russian Federation and Sweden and noted the efforts undertaken in the fields addressed. Agreeing with the suggestion of the expert from Switzerland, GRPE recommended forwarding the document GRPE-65-20 to the Working Party on Braking and Running Gear (GRRF).
76. The secretariat introduced GRPE-65-05, a draft paper looking at diesel vehicles and engines in the context of air quality, impacts of the emission of pollutants on the environment and health. The secretariat explained that paper originated in the UNECE Environment Division and followed the conclusions of the International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) that diesel engine exhaust is carcinogenic to humans. The secretariat clarified that the document contains information on the importance of different economic sectors with respect to emissions, the interactions between sectoral emission sources and exposure to air pollution, policies and measures that have been implemented in different economic sectors to reduce the emissions of pollutants, including international agreements related to air quality, health and environmental issues. The secretariat reported that the current draft includes a compilation of facts from the work in the framework of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), its Task Force on Health, the European Environment Agency (EEA), and the work undertaken in the framework of the Inland Transport Committee and its subsidiary bodies, paying particular attention to the results delivered by the World Forum and GRPE.
77. The Director of the UNECE Transport Division explained that the paper would be the result of joint activity between the UNECE Transport and Environment Divisions. She explained that GRPE-65-05 shall be considered as a working document and encouraged all GRPE stakeholders to provide their contributions, namely on expected conclusions and recommendations. She explained her intention to widen the scope of the document to address all economic sectors, also clarifying that the inclusion of other sectors (besides transport) is still an open issue, at the moment. Having informed GRPE that the deadline for a final paper is the end of November 2013, she invited interested stakeholders to send their comments to the secretariat by the end of March 2013.
78. Positive comments on the document were expressed by the experts from Canada France, India, Italy, Germany, the Russian Federation and Switzerland. The expert from Canada acknowledged the inclusion of the contributions already provided in the draft text that was distributed. The expert from France gave a favourable feedback on the cross-sectoral approach suggested by the Director of the UNECE Transport Division. The expert from Germany recommended the incorporation of the achievements of the REC group, currently not mentioned in GRPE-65-05. The expert from Switzerland informed GRPE that diesel exhaust is classified as carcinogenic in Switzerland and that an action plan was started in 2006 to mitigate emissions. He mentioned that the experience of the action plan could provide interesting information for the paper. The expert from India suggested including a vision for future regulatory action in the document, of possible. Drawing attention on emissions of solid particles in cities, the expert from the Russian Federation recalled the role played by tyre dust and referred to GRPE-65-20 for more details.
79. The expert from OICA pointed out that the IARC conclusions were diffused in a press release, underlining that the full study is not yet available for the public. The expert from EUROMOT suggested including in the document non-road activities being undertaken in the European context.
80. Having agreed to limit the scope of the document to technical aspects of engines and vehicles, including regulatory interventions addressing their emissions (i.e. to its field of expertise), GRPE considered that the availability of the full study is not instrumental for its contributions. GRPE also agreed that the document should not question the conclusions of the experts from WHO and IARC.